Early Printing in Korea - Glossary

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Understanding Korea Series No.2
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Reference Glossary Sources

Anseongpan (安城板,Anseong) Commercial books published in Anseong, Gyeonggi Province, in the 19th century
Baekunhwasangchorokbuljojikjisim cheyojeol (白雲和尙抄錄佛祖直指心體要節) The Hymn of Monk Baekun and Identification of the Buddha’s Spirit by the Practice of Zen. It is currently the world’s oldest book.
Bansa (頒賜) Books given by the king
Bansagi (頒賜記) The record of books given by the king
Beongakbon (飜刻本) Reproduced edition
Bogakbon (補刻本) Complimentary edition
Chaekpan (冊板) Wooden plate
Changjun (唱準) Master Orator who reads out the original writing (書草), is usually able to decipher all the characters.
Chanjipcheong (撰集廳)or Chansucheong (撰修廳) A special tool made for the compilation of a special book
Vheoluri (鐵UKS02 Early Printings in Korea img 73.jpg里) A rectangular metal frame, a tool used in the book printing
Chogakbon (初刻本) First engraved edition
Choganbon (初刊本) First edition
Daebanggwangbul Hwaeomgyeong, written on white paper in ink (白紙墨書大方廣佛華嚴經) Currently the oldes sacred book (sagyeong) written with ink brush produced in 755 in Korea. It records the process of paper making.
Daehyeongbon (大型本) Large size edition
Daejabon (大字本) Large letter edition
Daejangdogam (大藏都監) Special office established for the production of the Tripitaka Koreana
Daemyeongnyuljikhae (大明律直解) The Great Ming Code. A book printed with wooden movable type in the early Joseon. It is currently the oldest wooden movable type print although the genuine article does not exist.
Dalpan (達板) Commercial books published in Dalseong (Daegu), Gyeongsang Province in the 19th century.
Dohwalja (陶活字) Ceramic porcelain movable types
Donggukhusaengsinrok (東國厚生新綠) The New Report on Korean Welfare. An encyclopedia complied in the 19th century recording the techniques of casting metal and clay types
Donggukisanggukjip (東國李相國集) A book written by Yi Gyu-Bo documenting the books printed with metal types in the 13th century
Donginchal (銅印札) One of the tools used in book printing. It is a metal stick made for printing a line that denotes a border in the middle of the text.
Dongmunjibo (同文之寶) A royal seal for books given by the king. The seal is stamped on the first page of the book. There are different versions.
Dongmyeongseonsaengjip(東溟先生集) Collected Poems of Teacher Dongmyeong. A book written by Kim Se-Ryeom (1593-1646) and printed with earthen movable types
Eomi (魚尾) A fish tail shaped symbol marking the middle of a book plate used in the tradition way of printing
Gabinja (甲寅字) Metal movable types created in 1434. Among the metal movable types, they were used the longest.
Gaegukwonjonggongsinnokgwon(開國元宗功臣錄券) Certificate of Titles and Rewards for the Contributors for the Foundation of the Nation. It is currently the oldest wooden movable type print book among the Korean antique books as it was printed in 1395.
Gakjajang (刻字匠) Master wood engraver
Gamingwan (監印官) Master Printing Inspector who oversees the whole process, usually an officer from the Royal Ministry of Publication. A separate inspector, a civil administrative officer, was also appointed.
Gangyeongdogam (刊經都監) Special office established for the publication of Buddhist scriptures during the reign of King Sejo
Gangyeongdogampan A general name for Buddhist scripture printed by Gangyeongdogam
Geumseongpan (錦城板) Commercial books published in Geumseong (Naju), Jeolla Province
GiYeong (箕營) Pyeongan-do Provincial Officer
Gogeummyeongyu (古今名喩) The Classic Epigrams of China. The book known to be printed with earthen movable types
Gongmok (空木) Quadrat
GosaSinseo (攷事新書) Fresh Notes Made According to Events of Long Ago: An encyclopedic style book compiled by Seo Yu-Gu in the 18th century. It can be considered to be a revised edition of Gosachwalyo.
Gosachwalyo (攷事撮要) The first encyclopedia of Joseon compiled by Oe Suk-Kown in the 16th century.It was revised several times by the 18th century. The 16th century editions had records of chaekpan.
Gwanpanbon (官板本) A general term referring to the books published by the central government or regional governmental offices during the Joseon period
Gwansanggam (觀象監) Meteorological Office
Gyemija (癸未字) Metal movable types made in 1403. They are the first Joseon metal movable types.
Gyeongjaja (庚子字) Metal movable types made in 1420. The way they are set during print press was greatly improved.
Gyeongpan (京板) Commercial books published in Seoul in the 19th century
Gyeongseojeongmun (經書正文) Compilation of Four Books and Three Canons of Confucianism
Gyojangdogam (敎藏都監) Special Office overseeing the engraving project of National Preceptor Daegak (Uicheon)
Gyojeongbon (校正本) Revised edition
Gyojeongcheong (校正廳) Special administrative office established to edit and support the book compiliation in the Joseon period
Gyonihwalja (膠泥活字) Clay movable types
Gyoseogwan (校書館) Central Government Publishing Office
Gyujangjibo (奎章之寶) A royal seal stamped on the first page of books given by the king. It was used after the establishment of Gyujanggak by King Jeongjo.
Gyunjajang (均字匠) Master Typesetter in charge of justifying the typeset when aligning and fixing the type pieces, by filling up the void with bamboo, wood or scrape of paper so they do not shake
Heummumjibo (欽文之寶) One of the royal seals used to stamp the first page of the book given by the king
Heungduksaja (興德寺字) Metal movable types used to print Jikji in 1377. Jikji was printed at Heungdeok Temple, Cheongju, Chungcheong Province.
Hullyeondogam (訓鍊都監) A military organization established in the Joseon period that contributed to the development of print culture by making wooden types in the 17th century
Hunmongjaheo (訓蒙字會) Chinese Character Textbook for Children
Hushoaebon (後刷本) A general term referring to books that were reprinted some time after the first print. Often times, the original book plate was preserved and used for reprinting.
Hyosunsasil (孝順事實) Book of Filial Piety. A Chinese book that used the fonts of Gabinja in early Joseon
Imjinja (壬辰字) Metal movable types made in Pyeongyang in 1777 and used by Gyoseogwan for printing.Around 150,000 types were produced and many pieces still remain.
Inchalgongchaekpan (印札空冊板) Wooden plate marking the rectagular frame and line borders. A printing tool used to make notebooks in late Joseon. Many of hand-written documents used these notebooks.
Inche (印髢) Printing sieve
Inchuljang (印出匠) Master Printer in charge of printing the embedded plate
Jabidoryangchambeopjiphae(慈悲道場懺法集解) The Collection of Prayers for Mercy. A book printed with the wooden production of Jikji, the oldest metal movable type print
Jaganbakgi (字間朴只) Space wedge made of wood or bamboo
Jedochaekpanmokrok (諸道冊版目錄) Records of the list of book plates stored by regional governmental offices
Jeongyuja (丁酉字) Metal movable types made in 1772 and used for printing by the central government. Around 150,000 types were produced but were destroyed by fire in 1857.
Jeungdogaja (證道歌字) Jeungdoga type piece. Metal movable types used to print Nammyeongcheonhwasang songjeungdoga in the 13th century. Recently, genuine articles of the metal movable types were found.
Jiphyeonjeon (集賢殿) Royal Academy for Scholars
Juja (鑄字) A general term referring to the casting of metal movable types or metal movable type itself
Jujabon (鑄字本) Metal type edition
Jujang (鑄匠) Metal casting master
Jujaso (鑄字所) Central office established in early Joseon to manage the movable types and printing along with Gyoseogwan
Jumuk (朱墨) Cinnabar stick
Junggakbon (重刻本) Re-engraved edition
Maguri Wooden bumper placed on two sides of book plates for protection
Mengqibitan (夢溪筆談) Collection of Things Seen and Heard. Book written by Bi Sheng (Pil Seung in Korean) of Song China. It contains the description of the Gyonihwalja printing method.
Mokhwaljabon (木活字本) Wooden movable type print
Mugujeonggwangdaedaranigyeong(無垢淨光大陀羅尼經) Buddhist scripture found inside the Seokgatap stupa of Bulguksa Temple in 1966. Printed before 751, it is the oldest wooden plate print.
Munjayujip (文字類輯) Collection of Various Chinese Idioms
Naesagi (內賜記) Records of the books given by the king. Same in meaning with Bansagi
Naeuiwon (內醫院) Royal Medical Clinic
Nammyeongcheonhwasangsongjeongdoga(南明泉和尙頌證道歌) Buddhist scripture of Goryeo known to have been printed with metal movable types in 1239. Currently the reproduced edition of metal movable types still exist and recently genuine articles of the metal movable types are found.
Neunghwapan (菱花板) Wooden plate used to make embossed patterns on the covers of Korean antique books
NongShu (農書) Agricultural Treatise. Book written by Wang Jeong of Won China. It contains the description of the wooden movable type printing method.
Nupango (鏤板考) Book compiled by Seo Yugu by the order of King Jeongjo. It shows the situation of the wooden plate printing in 18th century Joseon as it records the list of book plates stored by regional governmental offices and private Confucian academies.
panhabon (版下本) Book hand written in great care right before the engraving of wooden plate for the production of wooden plate print book
Pansimje (版心題) Title of the book marked in pansim (the center of the book plate) used in the traditional way of printing
Pohwalja (匏活字) Movable types made of gourd
Sangjeongyemun (詳定禮文) Authentic and Detailed Code of Etiquette. 13th century metal movable type print book mentioned in Yi Gyubo’s Donggukisanggukjip. The genuine article has not been found yet.
Sangjeongyemunja (詳定禮文字) Metal movable types assumed to have been used to print Sangjeongyemun
Sayeokwon (司譯院) Central Translation and Interpretation Office
Sebo (洗補) Proofreading. Another term for editing. It was used for print books in early Joseon.
Seojeokwon (書籍院) Office responsible for book publication in the late Goryeo period
Seokgatap stupa (釋迦塔) Stupa of Bulguksa Temple, Gyeongju. Mugujeonggwangdaedaranigyeong was found inside the stupa during its repair in 1966.
Seokinbon (石印本) Lithography
Seonsajigi (宣賜之記) Royal seal stamped on the first page of books given by the king. It was used till the reign of King Yeongjo in the Joseon period. After the reign of King Jeongjo, Gyujanggakjibo is often used.
Seopan (書板) Wooden plate for calligraphy praticing
Seosa (書肆) Book store that also functioned as a publishing company in the traditional period
Sigangwon (侍講院) Royal Education Office for the Crown Prince
Sijeonjipan (詩箋紙板) Wooden plate for making letter paper. Fancy writing, painting or design can be engraved for color printing.
Singuseorim (新舊書林) Publishing company and book store established in Seoul in 1887
Sininsangjeongyemunbalmi(新印詳定禮文跋尾) Epilogue written by Yi Gyubo for Sangjeongyemun. It is found in Donggukisanggukjip and reveals the situation of the 13th century metal movable type printing.
Sinmungwan (新文館) Publishing company established by Choi Namseon in 1908
Sohyeongbon (小型本) Small size edition
Sojabon (小字本) Small letter edition
Songyeonmuk (松煙墨) Pine charcoal ink
Sujang (守藏) Master Keeper in charge of storing and maintaining the type pieces in the warehouse
Tabon (打本) Dabbed print
Taeinpan (泰仁板) Commercial books published in Taein, Jeolla Province between the late 18th century and early 19th century
Tajainbon (打字印本) Typeset printing
Takinbon (拓印本) A book consisted of rubbed prints made by rubbing papers with ink on tombstones, roof tiles, and inscriptions
Tapbon (榻本) Another word for takbon (rubbed print)

Jajang (字UKS02 Early Printings in Korea img 74.jpg)

Letter storage
Tohwalja (土活字) earthen movable type
Wibuinja (衛夫人字) Another name for Gabinja. Gabina is called by this name because it resembles the writing of Wang Xizhi (Wang Huiji in Korean). Wibuin (Lady Wi or Wei Shuo in Chinese) is mother of Li Chong of Qin China and the teacher of Wang Xizhi.
Ungak (芸閣) Another name for Gyoseogwan which is the central office responsible for the book publication in the Joseon period
WanYeong (完營) Jeolla Provincial Officer
Wanpan (完板) A term referring to commercial books published in Jeonju, Jeolla Province. Recently, the term includes books published by governmental offices in Jeonju.
Wiseoneumjeul (爲善陰騭) Chinese book printed with fonts of Gabinja of early Joseon
YeongYeong (嶺營) Gyeongsang Provincial Officer
Yeonginbon (影印本) Photo printing
Yongjaechonghwa (慵齋叢話) Journal by Seonghyeon (1439-1504) recording various aspects of life. It contains detail records of Joseon type printing.
Yuinbon (油印本) Mimeography
Yuripan (琉璃版) Collotype
Yuyeonmuk(油煙墨) Plant oil charcoal ink

Understanding Korea Series No.2 Early Printings in Korea

Foreword · Acknowledgments

1. Korea’s Memory of the World and Early Printing (古印刷)

2. The Origins of World Printing Culture and Korea · 2.1 The Emergence of Printing Culture and Korea · 2.2 The Development of Printing Materials

3. Woodblock Printing and Movable Type Printing · 3.1 Woodblock Printing · 3.2 Movable Type Printing · 3.3 Other Early Printing

4. The Invention and Development of Metal Movable Type Printing · 4.1 Metal Movable Type Casting · 4.2 Metal Movable Type Typesetting

5. The Publishing Entities of Korean Traditional Prints · 5.1 The Government Publications (官) · 5.2 The Private Publications

Reference · Glossary · Sources · About the Author