The Korean House - HAHOE VILLAGE AND YANGDONG VILLAGE – UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE SITES
|Understanding Korea Series No.5|
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|2) Villages and Houses||HAHOE VILLAGE AND YANGDONG VILLAGE – UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE SITES||1) New Housing Types aft er the Opening of Ports|
Hahoe and Yangdong Villages represent the typical yangban lineage-villages and historic villages in Korea. They are located in the southeastern region of the Korean peninsula, the heartland of yangban culture during the Joseon Dynasty. Both villages were developed in a similar way on land thought to be ideal for Korean villages—areas that have a river in front of them and a mountain behind. Moreover, the houses in such villages are well suited to the Korean climate and arranged within the village according to Confucian courtesy. In these two villages, the representative components of the yangban lineage-village—arable fields and natural landscapes—are well preserved. The components include the head family’s house, the dwelling houses of other residents, a jeongsa (study hall), a jeongja (pavilion), a seowon (Confucian academy), and a seodang (village school). In addition, these villages also possess other tangible cultural heritage sites as well as intangible cultural heritage practices such as rites, traditional plays, books, and artifacts. These two villages are classic examples of Korean lineage-villages that reflect traditional Korean architecture and lifestyles. As a result, they were listed among the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in August 2010.
In traditional Korean society, the settlement of lineage-villages was typically pioneered in two ways. The first process involves an ancestor of a specific lineage selecting land as a permanent home for his descendants, as exemplified in the Hahoe Village. The other process of village formation is carried out by husbands moving to their wives’ hometowns upon marriage. Yangdong Village is an example of this second pattern.
Hahoe Village is a lineage-village of the Pungsan Ryu (柳) Clan, located in Andong, Gyeongsangbuk-do. It is the hometown of Ryu Seong-ryong (1542–1607), who was a scholar-official during the mid-Joseon Dynasty. This village is situated on floodplain that is bordered by Nakdonggang River on three sides. At the center of the village is a jongga surrounded by the houses of the commoners. Jeongsa and jeongja can also be found along the riverside. Fields, which are the financial foundation of the village, are situated beyond a nearby mountain and river.
In Gyeongju, Gyeongsangbuk-do, sits Yangdong Village, which is a lineage-village formed by the Gyeongju Son (孫) Clan and the Yeoju Yi (李) Clan. The Yangdong Village is an unusual case in which two different clans share power within the village. At first, this village was controlled by the Son family, with the Yi family moving there later as a result of a marriage. Given that both families produced many outstanding scholars, this village became recognized as a noble village. The head families of the two clans took possession of the land between the valley and the developed residential areas next to the Yangdongcheon Stream. Beyond the mountain sits a field called Angangdeul that served as the financial foundation of the village. The two clans competed against one another to build jeongja at the most scenic point surrounding the field.